Environmental Data Compendium
63 factsheets about the environment

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  1. Landscape openness

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    Despite the trend towards uniformity in the Dutch landscape, extremes in terms of the degree of landscape openness can still be found. The most open areas are the large water… more

  2. Visibility and influence of landscape appreciation by wind turbines, 2012

    Indicator | 5 April 2019

    Land-based wind turbines in the Netherlands are visible from about one-fifth of the country's surface area, and affect the public's appreciation of the landscape. The size of the… more

  3. Conservation status and trends in species and habitat types under the Birds and Habitats Directives, 2007-2012

    Indicator | 19 October 2016

    Almost all the habitat types in the Netherlands have an unfavourable-bad to unfavourable-inadequate conservation status. About a quarter of the Habitats Directive species have a… more

  4. Angling in the Netherlands, 1990-2015

    Indicator | 24 January 2017

    Over half a million anglers are active members of an angling club in the Netherlands, through a system of fishing passes introduced in 2007.… more

  5. Net environmental costs by sector, 1985-2013

    Indicator | 11 April 2017

    Total net environmental costs rose annually by an average 6.3 percent between 1985 and 2013. Costs decreased in 2005 and 2009, as a result of reduced costs for companies and… more

  6. Realisation of new Dutch National Ecological Network- agri-environment schemes

    Indicator | 7 July 2017

    The indicator 'Realisation of new Dutch National Ecological Network - agri-environment schemes' has expired.Information can be found in indicatormore

  7. Membership of Dutch private nature conservation organisations, 1989-2016

    Indicator | 11 October 2017

    In 2016 the combined membership of the four biggest nature conservation organisations declined slightly. For years the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has had the largest… more

  8. Land footprint, 1990-2013

    Indicator | 15 February 2018

    The amount of land required for Dutch consumption totaled about two and a half times the surface area of the Netherlands in 2013. About 0.5 hectares was used per person. Almost 80%… more

  9. Costs and financing of nature and landscape conservation, 1999-2016

    Indicator | 16 October 2018

    In 2016, gross costs of nature and landscape conservation amounted to 969 million euros. This results in a diminution of 14 per cent compared to the peak year 2009. Government… more

  10. Realisation of the national ecological network- land acquisition and conversion, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    On 1 January 2017 more than 108,000 hectares of land had been acquired (including change of designated land use) for realising the national ecological network (NEN). Between 2011… more

  11. Green tax revenues, 2001-2017

    Indicator | 24 January 2019

    In 2017 revenues from green taxes were 21.6 billion euros, 3.9 percent more than in 2016. Since 2001 revenues increased by 51 percent. In 2017 the total amount on revenues of the… more

  12. Manure surpluses in agriculture, 1970-2017

    Indicator | 4 March 2019

    Since 2006, when a new fertiliser policy was introduced in the Netherlands, the nitrogen surplus in agriculture decreased by 17,4 percent. In 2017, the nitrogen surplus was… more

  13. Use of renewable energy for transport, 2005-2017

    Indicator | 11 April 2019

    Since 2007, the use of renewable energy for transport has increased, because petrol and diesel suppliers are obliged by law to supply renewable energy. In 2015 and 2016, the share… more

  14. Environmental quality of surface water and natural areas, 1990-2010

    Indicator | 25 June 2014

    The environmental quality of surface water and natural water areas has improved, but is often not enough to ensure their sustainable conservation. Dutch policy aims to create… more

  15. Energy savings in the Netherlands, 2000- 2010

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    The energy saving rate in the Netherlands averaged 1.1 percent a year between 2000 and 2010. Although national energy savings declined following the start of the financial crisis… more

  16. Employment and the live/work ratio by municipality, 2013

    Indicator | 5 February 2016

    In 2013, almost 17% of all the jobs in the Netherlands were located in the four major cities. Relatively more people worked than lived in urban areas.… more

  17. Effects of climate change on cold and heat-loving species, 1990-2013

    Indicator | 10 March 2015

    The number of cold-loving species has been reduced in recent years, but the number of heat-loving species has grown. Numbers of temperature-neutral species have remained more or… more

  18. Land use in the Netherlands, 2012

    Indicator | 25 February 2016

    The Netherlands is a green country, with more than four fifths of its surface area used for recreation, agriculture, woodland and nature. However, spatial use varies greatly from… more

  19. Dutch biodiversity footprint, 1990- 2010

    Indicator | 5 August 2016

    The total Dutch biodiversity footprint increased by 11 percent between 1990 and 2000 and has decreased since then. Compared to 1990 the footprint in 2010 increased by 5 percent.… more

  20. Sea level: Dutch coast and worldwide, 1890-2014

    Indicator | 16 November 2016

    The sea level along the Dutch coast steadily rose by about 23 cm during the last 125 years, a change of 1.9 mm per year. This is roughly in line with the sea-level rise worldwide;… more

  21. Temperature trends: the Netherlands and worldwide, 1906-2015

    Indicator | 16 November 2016

    The annual mean temperature in the Netherlands has increased by 1.7 oC since 1906. The spring and summer seasons have warmed up the most The average global temperature has… more

  22. Waste generation and treatment, 1985-2014

    Indicator | 5 April 2017

    More and more waste is being recovered or incinerated, while less and less is being sent to landfill sites. Almost 60 million tons of waste was generated in 2014 (excluding… more

  23. Waste generation and treatment by sector, 1990-2014

    Indicator | 5 April 2017

    The amount of waste generated was about 60 million tons (excluding contaminated soil, dredged materials and animal manure) in 2014. Nearly 93% of the waste generated was recovered;… more

  24. Greenhouse gas emissions, 1990-2016

    Indicator | 6 September 2017

    In 2016 greenhouse gas emissions (provisional data) were 0.7 per cent higher than in 2015. The level of the emissions was 12 per cent under the Kyoto protocol base year.… more

  25. Habitat defragmentation measures for infrastructure, 2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    At the end of 2017 114 of the 178 ecological barriers caused by national transport infrastructure had been removed and 46 partly removed by taking mitigation measures, such as the… more

  26. Trends in ecological quality, 1994-2017

    Indicator | 6 December 2018

    Since 1994 the average ecological quality of all types of terrestrial ecosystems has declined. This decline has now been halted. In recent years, the average ecological quality of… more

  27. Number of threatened species in The Netherlands, by 2019

    Indicator | 13 March 2019

    Officially assembled Red Lists show that many Dutch plant and animal species are threatened with extinction. … more

  28. Red List Indicator, 1995- 2018

    Indicator | 16 May 2019

    Between 1950 and 1995, many species native to the Netherlands became endangered to some degree. Since 2005 the number of endangered species declined slightly and a noticeable… more

  29. Net labour participation, 2018

    Indicator | 5 June 2019

    Net labour participation in the Netherlands rose slightly in 2018 compared to the previous year. Regional differences in labour participation are limited in general. Only… more

  30. Farmland birds, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 21 September 2018

    Changes in agricultural practices have caused the number of breeding birds to dwindle in agricultural areas in the Netherlands. This pattern is found across the entire EU. … more

  31. Trend fauna- all species monitored- Living Planet Index Netherlands, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 3 May 2019

    The Living Planet Index of the Netherlands has increased with 6% since 1990. The increase is mainly attributable to developments in freshwater habitats. The trend has stabilised… more

  32. Ecosystem quality and trends in soil pH, 2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    In many ecosystems soil quality is good, measured in terms of soil pH. But soil pH in parts of grasslands and marsh ecosystems is not yet within acceptable levels. In all… more

  33. Quality and trends of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, 2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    Sites with moderate or bad groundwater levels are found throughout the country and in all ecosystem types. Marshes, wet heaths and wet grasslands in particular suffer from water… more

  34. Ecosystem quality and trends in nitrogen availability, 2017

    Indicator | 6 December 2018

    In many ecosystems the environmental pressure from nitrogen deposition is still too high. In forest, open dune and heath ecosystems in particular, conditions almost everywhere are… more

  35. Ozone layer, 1980-2012

    Indicator | 27 June 2014

    The thickness of the ozone layer has decreased by 5% worldwide during the last 25 years, with most depletion taking place between 1980 and 1990. Since the early 1990s, it has… more

  36. Emissions of National Emission Ceiling (NEC) substances, 1990-2013

    Indicator | 13 October 2015

    Emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, particulate matter and NMVOCs have declined considerably since 1990. With the exception of ammonia all emissions in 2012… more

  37. Eutrophying deposition, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 12 June 2019

    Eutrophying deposition totalled over 1,600 mol nitrogen per ha in 2017 averaged over the Netherlands. Deposition has therefore decreased by about 40% since 1990.… more

  38. Noise levels in homes due to road and rail traffic, 2000-2010

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    More than 7,000 homes in the Netherlands experience noise from traffic on highways that exceeds the permissible level. Another 6,000 homes experience excessive noise levels from… more

  39. Nitrate in upper groundwater under agricultural land, 1992-2015

    Indicator | 29 March 2017

    Average nitrate concentration in groundwater in the Sand Region has diminished to levels close to the Nitrates Directive. The four-year average of nitrate concentrations in… more

  40. Environmental load of pesticides, 1998-2010

    Indicator | 24 February 2015

    The decrease in the environmental load of pesticides on surface waters has levelled off. The total environmental load was about 85% lower in the period 2008-2010 than in the… more

  41. Exotic species in fresh water, 1900-2010

    Indicator | 7 June 2014

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of new species found in Dutch surface waters. While most new species enter the Netherlands as a result of the trade in pond and… more

  42. Measures for migratory fish, 2018

    Indicator | 19 April 2018

    The construction of dams and pumping stations means that fish migrating from the sea or the major rivers are only able to reach a part of the streams and polder water areas. Fish… more

  43. Quality of macroinvertebrate in fresh surface water, 1991-2010

    Indicator | 17 November 2014

    The quality of macro invertebrates is low for all types of surface water. A good quality was only found at a few sites. Although there was a slight improvement between 1990 and… more

  44. Quality surface water, 2015

    Indicator | 12 January 2016

    Most water bodies do not meet the quality requirements as laid down in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The chemical quality is in most water bodies insufficient. The… more

  45. Change in species numbers in natural and agricultural areas, 1975-2005

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    A decrease in the numbers of target species as defined in Dutch nature policy was seen in agricultural areas, whereas they increased in natural areas.… more

  46. Nature and Landscape Index

    Indicator | 5 August 2015

    The Nature and Landscape Index (Index NL) shows the quality of natural areas and landscapes and the way the quality is developing. This index replaces the 'nature target types'… more

  47. Ecosystem goods and services in the Netherlands, 2013

    Indicator | 6 October 2015

    Dutch society makes use of a variety of goods and services provided by ecosystems - commonly referred to as ecosystem services. The results show that in no case do ecosystems in… more

  48. Ecosystem quality, 2012

    Indicator | 19 October 2016

    An indicator of ecosystem quality is the number of qualifying species present in protected natural areas. A comparison between the periods 2006-2012 and 2000-2005 shows that the… more

  49. Spatial connectivity of the national ecological network, 2015

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    The increase in the total area of wildlife habitat since 1990 has also improved the spatial connectivity of ecosystems in the Netherlands. However, a considerable part of the… more

  50. Regional economic growth, 2014

    Indicator | 6 July 2016

    Excluding the sector mineral extraction, the Dutch economy grew 1.6 percent in 2014, following two years of contraction. Economic growth including mineral extraction was only 1.0… more

  51. Exceedance of critical loads for nitrogen deposition on nature, 1995-2016

    Indicator | 6 May 2019

    The average nitrogen deposition on terrestrial ecosystems in the Netherlands has stabilised in recent years. However, across large areas of different ecosystems the deposition… more

  52. Competitiveness of Dutch regions and sectors, 2010

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    The main competitors of Dutch industry are primarily located in large, high-density regions with good national accessibility and international connectivity. … more

  53. Changes in passenger and freight mobility, 2000-2012

    Indicator | 15 January 2016

    Total passenger mobility (measured in kilometres travelled) increased by about 4% in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2012. Stabilisation was seen after 2007, in particular in… more

  54. Vacancy of retail space, 2004-2015

    Indicator | 19 January 2016

    There is an oversupply of retail shops in the Netherlands. On average, more than 9% of total shop floor area is unoccupied in 2015. The percentage has been on the rise since 2008,… more

  55. Vacancy of office space, 1991-2015

    Indicator | 19 January 2016

    In the Netherlands, there is an oversupply of office space. On average, more than 17% of office space is unoccupied in 2015 and the percentage is still growing. There are regional… more

  56. Population growth, 2011-2016

    Indicator | 30 August 2016

    Population growth rates were high in the four major cities of the Netherlands from 2011 to 2016. There was a strong correlation between municipality size and population growth: in… more

  57. House prices, 2016

    Indicator | 31 May 2017

    House prices (excluding new construction) were 5.0 percent higher on average in 2016 than in 2015. House buyers paid an average 244 thousand euros for a house. For the third year… more

  58. Ownership of housing stock, 2006-2014

    Indicator | 24 December 2015

    On 1 January 2014, there were 7.5 million houses in the Netherlands. This represents an increase of 7.1% compared with 1 January 2006. Since 2006 a slight increase was seen in… more

  59. Unoccupied dwellings, 2013

    Indicator | 26 September 2014

    On 1 January 2013, more than 390 thousand homes in the Netherlands were unoccupied. This is 5 percent of all housing in the country. Four percent of one-family houses and eight… more

  60. Stocks of dwellings and non-residential premises, changes and utilisation functions, 2014

    Indicator | 9 October 2015

    On 31 December 2014, there were nearly 7.6 million dwellings in the Netherlands. In addition, there were over 1.1 million non-residential buildings including office and shop… more

  61. Accessibility indicator: access by car in 2012

    Indicator | 5 February 2016

    The general picture is that car accessibility (the door-to-door as-the-crow-flies travel speed), in 2012 in the morning rush hour barely differs from the evening rush hour. Car… more

  62. Wind energy capacity, 1990-2018

    Indicator | 25 September 2019

    In 2018 Dutch wind energy capacity (4,4 thousand megawatts) increased by 4.5% compared to 2017. … more

  63. Renewable energy use, 1990-2018

    Indicator | 25 September 2019

    The share of renewable energy in total energy consumption increased from 6.6 percent in 2017 to 7.4 percent in 2018. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive, the Dutch share… more

  64. Road traffic: volume trends and environmental pressure, 1990-2018

    Indicator | 27 September 2019

    Implemented measures resulted in a decrease in emissions of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides since 1990, despite an increase in the number of vehicle kilometres. Carbon… more

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The Environmental Data Compendium is a partnership of CBS, PBL, RIVM and WUR.