Environmental Data Compendium
64 factsheets about the environment

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  1. Quality of macroinvertebrate in fresh surface water, 1991-2010

    Indicator | 17 November 2014

    The quality of macro invertebrates is low for all types of surface water. A good quality was only found at a few sites. Although there was a slight improvement between 1990 and… more

  2. Quality surface water, 2015

    Indicator | 12 January 2016

    Most water bodies do not meet the quality requirements as laid down in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The chemical quality is in most water bodies insufficient. The… more

  3. Ozone layer, 1980-2012

    Indicator | 27 June 2014

    The thickness of the ozone layer has decreased by 5% worldwide during the last 25 years, with most depletion taking place between 1980 and 1990. Since the early 1990s, it has… more

  4. Landscape openness

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    Despite the trend towards uniformity in the Dutch landscape, extremes in terms of the degree of landscape openness can still be found. The most open areas are the large water… more

  5. Exotic species in fresh water, 1900-2010

    Indicator | 7 June 2014

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of new species found in Dutch surface waters. While most new species enter the Netherlands as a result of the trade in pond and… more

  6. Sustainable production chains: wood, 2005-2013

    Indicator | 30 July 2015

    The market share of certified sustainably produced timber in the Netherlands increased to 74% between 2011 and 2013, primarily as sheet material increased from 51% to 80%. … more

  7. Conservation status and trends in species and habitat types under the Birds and Habitats Directives, 2007-2012

    Indicator | 19 October 2016

    Almost all the habitat types in the Netherlands have an unfavourable-bad to unfavourable-inadequate conservation status. About a quarter of the Habitats Directive species have a… more

  8. Ecosystem quality, 2012

    Indicator | 19 October 2016

    An indicator of ecosystem quality is the number of qualifying species present in protected natural areas. A comparison between the periods 2006-2012 and 2000-2005 shows that the… more

  9. Nitrate in upper groundwater under agricultural land, 1992-2015

    Indicator | 29 March 2017

    Average nitrate concentration in groundwater in the Sand Region has diminished to levels close to the Nitrates Directive. The four-year average of nitrate concentrations in… more

  10. Net environmental costs by sector, 1985-2013

    Indicator | 11 April 2017

    Total net environmental costs rose annually by an average 6.3 percent between 1985 and 2013. Costs decreased in 2005 and 2009, as a result of reduced costs for companies and… more

  11. Realisation of new Dutch National Ecological Network- agri-environment schemes

    Indicator | 7 July 2017

    The indicator 'Realisation of new Dutch National Ecological Network - agri-environment schemes' has expired.Information can be found in indicatormore

  12. Land footprint, 1990-2013

    Indicator | 15 February 2018

    The amount of land required for Dutch consumption totaled about two and a half times the surface area of the Netherlands in 2013. About 0.5 hectares was used per person. Almost 80%… more

  13. Measures for migratory fish, 2018

    Indicator | 19 April 2018

    The construction of dams and pumping stations means that fish migrating from the sea or the major rivers are only able to reach a part of the streams and polder water areas. Fish… more

  14. Wind energy capacity, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 24 July 2018

    In 2017 Dutch wind energy capacity (4,2 megawatts) was about the same as in 2016. … more

  15. Change in species numbers in natural and agricultural areas, 1975-2005

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    A decrease in the numbers of target species as defined in Dutch nature policy was seen in agricultural areas, whereas they increased in natural areas.… more

  16. Nature and Landscape Index

    Indicator | 5 August 2015

    The Nature and Landscape Index (Index NL) shows the quality of natural areas and landscapes and the way the quality is developing. This index replaces the 'nature target types'… more

  17. Environmental quality of surface water and natural areas, 1990-2010

    Indicator | 25 June 2014

    The environmental quality of surface water and natural water areas has improved, but is often not enough to ensure their sustainable conservation. Dutch policy aims to create… more

  18. Energy savings in the Netherlands, 2000- 2010

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    The energy saving rate in the Netherlands averaged 1.1 percent a year between 2000 and 2010. Although national energy savings declined following the start of the financial crisis… more

  19. Noise levels in homes due to road and rail traffic, 2000-2010

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    More than 7,000 homes in the Netherlands experience noise from traffic on highways that exceeds the permissible level. Another 6,000 homes experience excessive noise levels from… more

  20. Urban green spaces, 2000-2006

    Indicator | 1 July 2014

    It is very important that there are public green spaces close to homes for daily use (play, rest and sport). Particularly little public green space per house is found in the… more

  21. Density of housing, work and retail trade in urban areas, 2000-2008

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    The Dutch Spatial Policy Document focuses on the development of urban centres in urban networks and in new key projects (NSPs). The density of functions in urban centres and around… more

  22. Housing, work and retail mix in urban areas, 2000-2008

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    The Dutch Spatial Policy Document focuses on urban centre development in urban networks and in new key projects (NSPs). Diversity in urban functions also plays a role in this.… more

  23. Employment and the live/work ratio by municipality, 2013

    Indicator | 5 February 2016

    In 2013, almost 17% of all the jobs in the Netherlands were located in the four major cities. Relatively more people worked than lived in urban areas.… more

  24. Competitiveness of Dutch regions and sectors, 2010

    Indicator | 20 May 2014

    The main competitors of Dutch industry are primarily located in large, high-density regions with good national accessibility and international connectivity. … more

  25. Accessibility indicator: access by car in 2012

    Indicator | 5 February 2016

    The general picture is that car accessibility (the door-to-door as-the-crow-flies travel speed), in 2012 in the morning rush hour barely differs from the evening rush hour. Car… more

  26. Changes in passenger and freight mobility, 2000-2012

    Indicator | 15 January 2016

    Total passenger mobility (measured in kilometres travelled) increased by about 4% in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2012. Stabilisation was seen after 2007, in particular in… more

  27. Vacancy of retail space, 2004-2015

    Indicator | 19 January 2016

    There is an oversupply of retail shops in the Netherlands. On average, more than 9% of total shop floor area is unoccupied in 2015. The percentage has been on the rise since 2008,… more

  28. Vacancy of office space, 1991-2015

    Indicator | 19 January 2016

    In the Netherlands, there is an oversupply of office space. On average, more than 17% of office space is unoccupied in 2015 and the percentage is still growing. There are regional… more

  29. Emissions of National Emission Ceiling (NEC) substances, 1990-2013

    Indicator | 13 October 2015

    Emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, particulate matter and NMVOCs have declined considerably since 1990. With the exception of ammonia all emissions in 2012… more

  30. Number of contaminated sites; inventory October 2014

    Indicator | 30 September 2015

    There are still approximately 250,000 sites in the Netherlands showing various degrees of soil pollution. A recently completed overview indicates that 1,518 sites are seriously… more

  31. Environmental load of pesticides, 1998-2010

    Indicator | 24 February 2015

    The decrease in the environmental load of pesticides on surface waters has levelled off. The total environmental load was about 85% lower in the period 2008-2010 than in the… more

  32. Land use in the Netherlands, 2012

    Indicator | 25 February 2016

    The Netherlands is a green country, with more than four fifths of its surface area used for recreation, agriculture, woodland and nature. However, spatial use varies greatly from… more

  33. The young, the potential working population and the elderly, 2013

    Indicator | 22 August 2014

    'Grey pressure' in the Netherlands as a whole was 28% in 2013. This represents a significant increase compared with 1960 and 2000, when it was 16.8% and 21.9% respectively. The… more

  34. Ownership of housing stock, 2006-2014

    Indicator | 24 December 2015

    On 1 January 2014, there were 7.5 million houses in the Netherlands. This represents an increase of 7.1% compared with 1 January 2006. Since 2006 a slight increase was seen in… more

  35. Unoccupied dwellings, 2013

    Indicator | 26 September 2014

    On 1 January 2013, more than 390 thousand homes in the Netherlands were unoccupied. This is 5 percent of all housing in the country. Four percent of one-family houses and eight… more

  36. Stocks of dwellings and non-residential premises, changes and utilisation functions, 2014

    Indicator | 9 October 2015

    On 31 December 2014, there were nearly 7.6 million dwellings in the Netherlands. In addition, there were over 1.1 million non-residential buildings including office and shop… more

  37. Regional economic growth, 2014

    Indicator | 6 July 2016

    Excluding the sector mineral extraction, the Dutch economy grew 1.6 percent in 2014, following two years of contraction. Economic growth including mineral extraction was only 1.0… more

  38. Dutch biodiversity footprint, 1990- 2010

    Indicator | 5 August 2016

    The total Dutch biodiversity footprint increased by 11 percent between 1990 and 2000 and has decreased since then. Compared to 1990 the footprint in 2010 increased by 5 percent.… more

  39. Population growth, 2011-2016

    Indicator | 30 August 2016

    Population growth rates were high in the four major cities of the Netherlands from 2011 to 2016. There was a strong correlation between municipality size and population growth: in… more

  40. Temperature trends: the Netherlands and worldwide, 1906-2015

    Indicator | 16 November 2016

    The annual mean temperature in the Netherlands has increased by 1.7 oC since 1906. The spring and summer seasons have warmed up the most The average global temperature has… more

  41. House prices, 2016

    Indicator | 31 May 2017

    House prices (excluding new construction) were 5.0 percent higher on average in 2016 than in 2015. House buyers paid an average 244 thousand euros for a house. For the third year… more

  42. Ecosystem goods and services in the Netherlands, 2013

    Indicator | 6 October 2015

    Dutch society makes use of a variety of goods and services provided by ecosystems - commonly referred to as ecosystem services. The results show that in no case do ecosystems in… more

  43. Farmland birds, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 21 September 2018

    Changes in agricultural practices have caused the number of breeding birds to dwindle in agricultural areas in the Netherlands. This pattern is found across the entire EU. … more

  44. Costs and financing of nature and landscape conservation, 1999-2016

    Indicator | 16 October 2018

    In 2016, gross costs of nature and landscape conservation amounted to 969 million euros. This results in a diminution of 14 per cent compared to the peak year 2009. Government… more

  45. Spatial connectivity of the national ecological network, 2015

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    The increase in the total area of wildlife habitat since 1990 has also improved the spatial connectivity of ecosystems in the Netherlands. However, a considerable part of the… more

  46. Habitat defragmentation measures for infrastructure, 2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    At the end of 2017 114 of the 178 ecological barriers caused by national transport infrastructure had been removed and 46 partly removed by taking mitigation measures, such as the… more

  47. Realisation of the national ecological network- land acquisition and conversion, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    On 1 January 2017 more than 108,000 hectares of land had been acquired (including change of designated land use) for realising the national ecological network (NEN). Between 2011… more

  48. Ecosystem quality and trends in soil pH, 2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    In many ecosystems soil quality is good, measured in terms of soil pH. But soil pH in parts of grasslands and marsh ecosystems is not yet within acceptable levels. In all… more

  49. Quality and trends of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, 2017

    Indicator | 5 December 2018

    Sites with moderate or bad groundwater levels are found throughout the country and in all ecosystem types. Marshes, wet heaths and wet grasslands in particular suffer from water… more

  50. Trends in ecological quality, 1994-2017

    Indicator | 6 December 2018

    Since 1994 the average ecological quality of all types of terrestrial ecosystems has declined. This decline has now been halted. In recent years, the average ecological quality of… more

  51. Ecosystem quality and trends in nitrogen availability, 2017

    Indicator | 6 December 2018

    In many ecosystems the environmental pressure from nitrogen deposition is still too high. In forest, open dune and heath ecosystems in particular, conditions almost everywhere are… more

  52. Angling in the Netherlands, 1990-2015

    Indicator | 24 January 2017

    Over half a million anglers are active members of an angling club in the Netherlands, through a system of fishing passes introduced in 2007.… more

  53. Renewable energy use, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 15 January 2019

    The share of renewable energy in total energy consumption increased from 6.0 percent in 2016 to 6.6 percent in 2017. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive, the Dutch share… more

  54. Green tax revenues, 2001-2017

    Indicator | 24 January 2019

    In 2017 revenues from green taxes were 21.6 billion euros, 3.9 percent more than in 2016. Since 2001 revenues increased by 51 percent. In 2017 the total amount on revenues of the… more

  55. Effects of climate change on cold and heat-loving species, 1990-2013

    Indicator | 10 March 2015

    The number of cold-loving species has been reduced in recent years, but the number of heat-loving species has grown. Numbers of temperature-neutral species have remained more or… more

  56. Sea level: Dutch coast and worldwide, 1890-2014

    Indicator | 16 November 2016

    The sea level along the Dutch coast steadily rose by about 23 cm during the last 125 years, a change of 1.9 mm per year. This is roughly in line with the sea-level rise worldwide;… more

  57. Greenhouse gas emissions, 1990-2016

    Indicator | 6 September 2017

    In 2016 greenhouse gas emissions (provisional data) were 0.7 per cent higher than in 2015. The level of the emissions was 12 per cent under the Kyoto protocol base year.… more

  58. Waste generation and treatment, 1985-2014

    Indicator | 5 April 2017

    More and more waste is being recovered or incinerated, while less and less is being sent to landfill sites. Almost 60 million tons of waste was generated in 2014 (excluding… more

  59. Waste generation and treatment by sector, 1990-2014

    Indicator | 5 April 2017

    The amount of waste generated was about 60 million tons (excluding contaminated soil, dredged materials and animal manure) in 2014. Nearly 93% of the waste generated was recovered;… more

  60. Manure surpluses in agriculture, 1970-2017

    Indicator | 4 March 2019

    Since 2006, when a new fertiliser policy was introduced in the Netherlands, the nitrogen surplus in agriculture decreased by 17,4 percent. In 2017, the nitrogen surplus was… more

  61. Number of threatened species in The Netherlands, by 2019

    Indicator | 13 March 2019

    Officially assembled Red Lists show that many Dutch plant and animal species are threatened with extinction. … more

  62. Membership of Dutch private nature conservation organisations, 1989-2016

    Indicator | 11 October 2017

    In 2016 the combined membership of the four biggest nature conservation organisations declined slightly. For years the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has had the largest… more

  63. Visibility and influence of landscape appreciation by wind turbines, 2012

    Indicator | 5 April 2019

    Land-based wind turbines in the Netherlands are visible from about one-fifth of the country's surface area, and affect the public's appreciation of the landscape. The size of the… more

  64. Use of renewable energy for transport, 2005-2017

    Indicator | 11 April 2019

    Since 2007, the use of renewable energy for transport has increased, because petrol and diesel suppliers are obliged by law to supply renewable energy. In 2015 and 2016, the share… more

  65. Trend fauna- all species monitored- Living Planet Index Netherlands, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 3 May 2019

    The Living Planet Index of the Netherlands has increased with 6% since 1990. The increase is mainly attributable to developments in freshwater habitats. The trend has stabilised… more

  66. Exceedance of critical loads for nitrogen deposition on nature, 1995-2016

    Indicator | 6 May 2019

    The average nitrogen deposition on terrestrial ecosystems in the Netherlands has stabilised in recent years. However, across large areas of different ecosystems the deposition… more

  67. Red List Indicator, 1995- 2018

    Indicator | 16 May 2019

    Between 1950 and 1995, many species native to the Netherlands became endangered to some degree. Since 2005 the number of endangered species declined slightly and a noticeable… more

  68. Road traffic: volume trends and environmental pressure, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 4 April 2019

    Implemented measures resulted in a decrease in emissions of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides since 1990, despite an increase in the number of vehicle kilometres. Carbon… more

  69. Net labour participation, 2018

    Indicator | 5 June 2019

    Net labour participation in the Netherlands rose slightly in 2018 compared to the previous year. Regional differences in labour participation are limited in general. Only… more

  70. Eutrophying deposition, 1990-2017

    Indicator | 12 June 2019

    Eutrophying deposition totalled over 1,600 mol nitrogen per ha in 2017 averaged over the Netherlands. Deposition has therefore decreased by about 40% since 1990.… more

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The Environmental Data Compendium is a partnership of CBS, PBL, RIVM and WUR.