Red List Indicator, 1995 - 2020

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Since 1995 the number of endangered species increased slightly. However, a noticeable reduction in levels of threat was identified.

40% of species are on the Red List

The number of endangered species on the Red List can be regarded as an indicator for the state of the biodiversity in the Netherlands. Almost 40% of all considered species gained Red List status in the 1990s because they were endangered to some extent.
The number of endangered species has risen marginally between 1995 and 2005, but has in fact declined somewhat after 2005. In recent years, the number of endangered species have risen again, indicating that the tendency towards biodiversity recovery is -at least temporarily- discontinued.

Slight recovery followed by a deterioration

RLI length (see second tab) indicates changes in the number of species on Red Lists by means of indices. If the Red List becomes longer (more species endangered), relative to the reference year 1995, the value will exceed 100. If the number of endangered species is reduced relative to 1995, the RLI value drops to below 100. In other words - the lower the value, the better.

Average level of threat decreased

Species on the Red List can be classified according to the degree of threat they are exposed to. The RLI colour (see third tab page) also considers shifts between the various RL categories. For this RLI version, too, a lower value (= less "red") is better. On average, since 1995 more species have shifted towards the less-endangered categories than to the more-endangered categories, although recently the average threat level has increased a little.

Improvement for dragonflies and mammals

Taking separate groups of species into consideration (fourth tab page), we find that improvement is not restricted to vascular plants: since 1995, mammals and dragonflies have also improved (see index values below 100 in 2020 in the table). Average threat status of breeding birds and reptiles improved to some extent compared to 2005, the number of threatened species of these species groups is still the same (and higher compared to 1995). Other species groups show very little or no signs of recovery compared to 1995 Red List status.

The most severely threatened species now slightly less threatened

After 2005, the Red List status of many species has deteriorated, but the Red List status of an even larger number of species has improved; 36 "vulnerable" and "sensitive" species have improved and 33 have deteriorated. Nine species "seriously threatened" of "threatened" in 2005 have deteriorated further, but 46 species have improved. In effect, the most severely threatened species have improved in status in recent years. In addition, 12 species re-appeared, whereas 5 have disappeared after 2005.

Conservation measures promote the return of lost species

During the past three decades, policy was aimed at averting the loss of biodiversity. Emissions considered harmful to the environment were reduced on a large scale (PBL, 2020) and in many areas measures were taken to restore nature values (van der Hoek et al., 2021). The area where nature is protected has grown and environmental conditions and water quality have improved.
The improvements may have contributed to the return to the Netherlands of a number of previously disappeared species. The improved water quality and the restoration of river banks and water meadows may have facilitated the return of the river clubtail, and recovery of calcareous grasslands may have facilitated the return of the Glanville fritillary. Other species have been actively reintroduced, such as otter and scarce large blue.
After many years of loss of biodiversity or - at best - a slowdown of the deterioration process, it appeared that the number of threatened species in the Netherlands started to get smaller. The recovery is fragile: a relatively high number of species (mainly vascular plants, but also a dragonfly) gained Red List status recently, whereas few species promoted to the non-threatened status.

Representativeness and (inter-)national application

Nature policy and land management predominantly focus on the seven groups of species on the RLI. These groups have the greatest resonance with the wider public. Unfortunately, the RLI represents mainly terrestrial and fresh water species. Apart from a few sea mammals, marine species are lacking entirely.
The RLI standard corresponds with the international conventions ratified by the Netherlands, in particular the Bern Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the EU biodiversity target. These conventions aim to prevent the loss of indigenous species at the national level. In recent years the RLI has been incorporated in the report to the parliament explaining the national budget, as an indicator of change in biodiversity.


Technical explanation

Naam van het gegeven
Verantwoordelijk instituut
Geografische verdeling

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Reference of this webpage

CBS, PBL, RIVM, WUR (2024). Red List Indicator, 1995 - 2020 (indicator 1521, version 14,

) Statistics Netherlands (CBS), The Hague; PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague; RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven; and Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen.